Cardura hur stor dos lagligt bestalla Flexisyn Lioresal kram kopa att kopa Acticin i sverige vad kan man kopa Crestor kopa Protonix i spanien kan man kopa Premarin i sverige kopa Diclofenac pa kanarieoarna pris Detrol apotek hjartat Oxytrol bestalla container kopa Nimotop estland kopa Levothroid i turkiet Tadalis bra pris Glucovance pris apoteket hjartat kopa Ventolin i sverige forum kopa Aleve oslo Inderal rekommenderad dos ar det lagligt att kopa Femara pa natet generisk Pamelor i sverige Zaditor kopa sverige Pletal for kvinnor pris ar det recept pa Aricept viagra Vantin kopa bestalla Styplon pa natet kopa Nolvadex i stockholm kopa Tretinoin mot faktura kop Xeloda utan recept Digoxin gel pa recept svart att fa recept pa Phenergan bestalla Calcium Carbonate utan recept rekommenderad dos Speman var kan man kopa akta Triamterene vart kan man bestalla Atorlip-20 billig Zithromax sverige Penegra kopa jord vill kopa Avodart Nolvadex pris pa gatan kopa Levothroid pa teneriffa kopa Dostinex estland kan man kopa Singulair pa apotek kan man kopa Naltrexone pa mallorca kopa Ciplox internet dosering Serevent k Haldol vilken dos att kopa Lopressor kopa generisk Flexisyn Elimite kopa Cozaar pa apoteket pris kopa Evecare online 2013 kopa Cafergot 50mg flytande Rosuvastatin dosering kopa Singulair i butik stockholm kan man kopa Brahmi pa teneriffa Fucidin utan recept kopa Amaryl pa cypern Amantadine uttag pris Roxithromycin 100 billig Malegra kapslar pris kopa Saw Palmetto inom eu Zyban jelly kopa kopa Cipro pa ica vill kopa Purim kopa Clomid online sverige kopa Olanzapine i turkiet bestalla Erexin-V utan recept Feldene pa recept kopa Styplon online sverige kopa Ampicillin i tallin kopa Aricept i indien olagligt att bestalla Lipothin olagligt att bestalla Endep kan man kopa Finax pa teneriffa Minocin mot angest dos kopa Requip online kopa Fosamax sakert pa natet lagligt att bestalla Diakof pa natet pris pa Avodart sverige Ashwagandha dosering vuxna kopa Naltrexone online kan man kopa Aristocort i usa kopa Avodart i danmark kopa Rocaltrol for kvinnor lagligt att kopa Provera bestalla Vasodilan online flashback kopa Prazosin pa kanarieoarna var kan man kopa Duphalac pa natet Betapace pris apotek sverige pris pa Zocor sverige kan man kopa Tetracycline i usa kopa Cabgolin estland Duetact dosering foredrag pris pa Epivir-HBV pa apoteket Mycelex-g kram pris forsaljning Alavert Benadryl hog dos Minomycin rapid recept bestalla Allegra for kvinnor Paxil pris i sverige Cytoxan billig kopa Lasix pa natet sverige kopa billigt Beconase AQ Atorlip-20 pris apotek sverige kopa Kytril online 2013 var kopa Famvir pa natet Duphalac dosering angest viagra Aldactone kopa kan man kopa Geriforte pa apoteket ar det lagligt att kopa Aciclovir kopa Diltiazem original var kopa Confido pa natet kopa Cymbalta billigt sakra sidor att kopa Lasuna bestalla Tulasi online flashback Triamcinolone online utan recept Kamagra dos forsta gangen basta stallet att kopa Risperdal Imitrex lag dos pris pa Plaquenil pa apoteket kan man kopa Lady era pa apoteket utan recept kan man kopa Nootropil i spanien dodlig dos av Ralista bestalla Calan sverige recept for Serevent olagligt att bestalla Yasmin pa natet forsaljning NPXL apotekets pris pa Remeron behovs recept for Zyban Aristocort snabb leverans bestalla Metoclopramide i sverige kopa Septilin pa kanarieoarna Clonidine kram kopa kopa Zaditor teneriffa kopa generisk Entocort i sverige recept for Evista Aciphex bestalla kopa Augmentin i tallinn kopa Baclofen pa rhodos kopa Entocort i apoteket kan man kopa Tegretol i danmark sakert stalle att kopa Bupron SR kopa Zovirax tyskland kopa Prinivil pa mallorca Brahmi bestalla kopa Venlor i helsingborg bestalla hem Nicotinell Bupron SR till katt dosering Hytrin gel pa recept kopa Tinidazole receptfritt Coumadin kapslar pris Mentat nervositet dosering dodlig dos av Fertomid kopa Amitriptyline egypten kopa Singulair sverige 2012 kan man kopa Tetracycline pa gran canaria kopa Ponstel duo kan man kopa Hydrochlorothiazide i thailand bestalla Antivert pa natet lagligt var kopa Hytrin flashback bestalla Levothroid pa natet flashback Betnovate dosering till katt behovs recept for Celadrin i spanien kopa Lioresal orifarm bestalla Bonnispaz kan man kopa Epivir-HBV i sverige kopa Casodex i egypten kopa eljo Femcare kan man kopa Shuddha pa apoteket Vytorin utan recept spanien Lynoral dos migran kopa Rosuvastatin i tyskland Arcoxia utan recept Toradol pa natet utan recept kopa Micardis i turkiet vilka lander kan man kopa FML Forte receptfritt bestalla Erexor fran thailand Prazosin dosering vuxna Anafranil bestalla bra stalle o kopa Cytotec kopa Paroxetine pa kanarieoarna vill du kopa Compazine Zetia gel pris apoteket Mobic lagre pris Rocaltrol utan recept spanien hur bestalla Toprol Ampicillin 100 billig bestalla Urispas pa natet lagligt kopa generisk Roxithromycin online pasteta od Kytril recept kopa Effexor pa gran canaria Bupropion mot nervositet dos vad kan man kopa Diflucan lagre pris pa Lincocin Provera strombrytare pris kan man kopa Anacin pa ica kopa Lincocin pa apotek bestalla Sinemet pa natet lagligt kopa Seroflo i indien Depakote kram pris kan man kopa Micardis pa apoteket utan recept kopa concerta Minomycin billig Yasmin pa natet kopa Dramamine i italien kopa Lariam online lagligt i vilka lander kan man kopa Oxytrol receptfritt kopa Xalatan pa kreta bestalla Fosamax pulver Sinequan gel recept kan man kopa Azulfidine pa apoteket kan man kopa Torsemide receptfritt i danmark snabb leverans Ralista vaga kopa Dilantin pa natet bestalla Panmycin fran thailand kopa Mestinon i london kopa Zantac orifarm kopa Himcolin bangkok apoteket hjartat Nolvadex pris kopa Mestinon i bulgarien kopa Risperdal pa natet lagligt Erexor recept kopa Noroxin pa kreta kopa Sildalis i phuket billig Avalide pa natet kan man kopa Aristocort i kroatien kopa riktig Crestor kopa Nexium gel kopa kvinnlig Amoxil Gasex tabletter pris sverige kopa Digoxin thailand kan man kopa Renagel pa teneriffa pris Serevent sverige Mircette bestalla container kopa laglig Atorlip-10 Erexin-V shampoo kopa dodlig dos Mycelex-g var kopa Serevent kopa Seroquel seriost Evista utan recept i sverige kopa Avapro i tallin hur kopa Cefadroxil generisk Cozaar snabb leverans Atorlip-10 kopa jord kopa Finax 10 mg kan man kopa Methotrexate i turkiet var kopa Cholestoplex pa natet kopa eljo Dramamine var ska man kopa Bupropion lagligt kopa Risperdal saker sida att kopa Eldepryl bestalla Effexor fran thailand svart att fa recept pa Seroquel apoteket hjartat Wellbutrin pris kopa Mentat 2013 Yougara dodlig dos bestalla Liponexol for kvinnor kop generisk Sinequan kopa Lozol kram kan man kopa Acticin pa gran canaria kopa Panmycin i butik stockholm kopa Allopurinol tabletter kopa Calcium Carbonate i norge kopa akta Vasotec pa natet kopa Lanoxin oslo kopa Ashwagandha flashback 2015 kan man kopa Promethazine i italien kopa Fluoxetine over disk kopa Maxalt pa teneriffa kopa Diovan pa mallorca bestalla Lukol pa natet kop generisk Toradol olagligt att kopa Sominex kan man kopa Cephalexin i sverige Robaxin kram kopa behovs recept for Calcium Carbonate Apcalis vet dosering kopa Feldene orifarm lagligt att bestalla Aricept pa natet kopa Keflex i filippinerna behovs recept for Topamax bestalla Compazine england kopa jord Nolvadex kopa concerta Clindamycin kopa Atorlip-20 i tallinn kopa Tadacip barcelona pris Zetia pa apoteket kopa Coumadin i spanien Doxycycline tabletter pris sverige Bentyl tabletter pris sverige eljo Tadapox basta pris dosering Aldactone till hund vart kan jag kopa Liponexol kopa billigt Differin kopa Top Avana i sverige vad ar generisk Deltasone saker sida att kopa Finax kan man kopa Atorlip-5 i sverige hur far man Crestor pa recept kan man kopa Dipyridamole i kroatien Evista vagguttag pris kopa riktig NPXL kopa Zovirax pa faktura kan man kopa Inderal pa mallorca lagligt att bestalla Allopurinol pa natet ar det olagligt att kopa Crestor pa natet bestalla Serophene pa internet Rogaine 5 dosering vuxen kopa Phexin flashback 2013 kopa Confido alanya bestalla Procardia online flashback vart ska man kopa Risperdal Proscar till hund dosering kopa Propecia utan recept kopa concerta Cyklokapron kopa Reminyl pa natet olagligt var kan man kopa Charboleps receptfritt ar det olagligt att bestalla Avapro Seroquel basta pris kopa Albendazole i thailand forsaljning av Zanaflex kopa Mycelex-g danmark viagra Advair kopa pris Trandate turkiet Levlen vilken dos Zyrtec online utan recept apoteket hjartat Clarina pris kopa Advair lagligt kopa Lariam pa rhodos Emsam recept kopa Renagel gel kopa Augmentin danmark kopa Prandin i riga vad kan man kopa Prevacid vad ar generisk Sominex Pariet med snabb leverans var kan man kopa Buspar duo pris for Prazosin Mestinon migran dos billig Speman pa natet Himcocid rapid recept kopa Benicar spanien kopa Paroxetine inom sverige Mentat dosering till katt hur kan man kopa Lipitor kopa Tamoxifen 400 mg forsaljning Grifulvin V Indinavir hog dos kopa Doxycycline i grekland Nootropil pris pa gatan kopa Periactin i danmark kopa Rumalaya flashback 2015 bestalla container Differin kan man kopa Proventil i frankrike vill kopa Rogaine 5 kopa Mestinon i vietnam kopa Naltrexone i eu var kan man kopa Celebrex receptfritt Atorlip-10 hexal kopa generisk Atorlip-10 i sverige bestalla Nicotinell for kvinnor skaffa recept till Atorlip-5 vad kan man kopa Probalan kopa Dapoxetine pa rhodos Liv 52 tabletter pris sverige bestalla Tamoxifen i sverige kan man kopa Zyloprim pa gran canaria Kemadrin vilken dos kopa Noroxin sakert pa natet var kopa Tofranil flashback Cephalexin pulver kopa hur kopa Sinemet kan man kopa Beconase AQ spanien kopa Cardura apoteket Zestoretic pa recept kop Trial Erection packs snabb leverans sankt pris Arimidex bestalla Epivir-HBV till sverige Copegus hur stor dos kopa Differin i egypten kopa Panmycin sakert Citalopram gel pa recept kan man kopa Diakof i spanien vart bestalla Lotrisone bestalla Penegra jelly kopa Plavix grekland flytande Albenza dos pris pa Metoclopramide i turkiet kopa Lioresal kopenhamn kan man kopa Geriforte i italien kopa Requip i frankrike ar generisk Zofran farligt Prilosec jelly snabb leverans kopa Lipitor over disk Grifulvin V kram kopa kopa billig Doxycycline kan man kopa Hoodia pa apoteket kopa Anacin 400 mg kopa Tamoxifen online 2013 kan man kopa Claritin i england kopa Requip duo kopa Xeloda utomlands kopa Tadalis pa internet Top Avana lag dos kan man kopa Singulair i england kopa Micronase tjeckien svart att fa recept pa Diakof ar det olagligt att kopa Topamax pa natet kan man kopa Cafergot i frankrike dosering Exelon till hund Shatavari dosering forsta gangen basta sidan att kopa Nizagara kopa Duphalac i italien generisk Antabuse i sverige kopa Sinemet att kopa Betnovate farligt kopa Sumycin pa natet Charboleps dosering migran kopa Keppra grekland kopa Nasonex i kina lagligt att bestalla Skelaxin pa natet kopa Apcalis polen Dutas dos migran bestalla Benzac flashback kopa Keppra pa teneriffa bestalla Metformin till sverige Celadrin for kvinnor pris var kopa Cialis billigt kopa Amaryl pa postforskott kopa Rogaine 5 online lagligt var ska man kopa Renagel kopa Mycelex-g apotek kopa Differin i kina kopa jord Pariet Proscar oral losning pris Calan eljo pris generisk Imdur biverkningar Torsemide billig kopa Celadrin pa gran canaria snabb leverans Bactroban eljo Lamictal pris kopa eljo Celexa kan man kopa Inderal i sverige kopa Zenegra pa faktura kopa Albendazole i goteborg Acticin i sverige utan recept Diarex och traning dosering lagsta pris pa Ditropan Lasuna och traning dosering pris Lotensin apotek hjartat kopa Colchicine pa mallorca kopa Tricor pa natet olagligt kopa Tadalis flashback bestalla hem Claritin kopa Nicotinell online 2012 bestalla Ginseng online generisk Probalan sverige lagligt bestalla Cabgolin kan man kopa Aciclovir i frankrike Ginseng utan recept kopa Requip tallinn lagligt bestalla Zenegra Celadrin tabletter pris sverige hur kopa Renagel kopa Shatavari i norge kopa Olanzapine 10mg kopa Amitriptyline i grekland kopa Rumalaya inom eu pris for Bonnispaz dosering Zithromax till hund kopa Erexin-V seriost bestalla Lamisil pulver basta stallet att kopa Dapoxetine pa pris for Skelaxin bestalla Ayurslim till sverige kopa Aciclovir over disk kopa Abana rhodos kopa Combivent pa faktura kopa Tricor snabb leverans kan man kopa Aldactone pa ica Peni Large i sverige utan recept kopa Aciclovir i lettland kopa Precose online sverige bestalla billig Torsemide kopa Alesse turkiet Aygestin dosering somn V-gel pris sverige kopa generisk Myambutol online pris pa Lotensin i turkiet Keftab utan recept i sverige Actonel basta pris kopa Nootropil pa ica kopa Dilantin sakert online kopa Lopressor pa apotek kopa Isoniazid i tallin Deltasone utan recept i sverige kopa Dilantin i butik kopa Cyklokapron inom eu apoteket Cleocin pris kopa Synthroid i tyskland olagligt att bestalla Depakote pa natet kopa Mentat spanien
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Articles & Opinion
Written by John Thorn   
Thursday, 31 August 2006 11:12
John Thorn is a contributing writer for The Biz of Baseball 

From "Play's the Thing," Woodstock Times, August 31, 2006:

Money talks, bullshit walks. That coarse and yet so fine phrase, born of poker, soon became the byword of the business arena, particularly when delivered by the man with the money to the schnook with the big idea. But what happens when money comes as part and parcel with bullshit, as is so often the case?

A couple of weeks ago Major League Baseball Advanced Media (MLBAM) and the Players Association (MLBPA) lost a court case to CDM Fantasy Sports, a Missouri corporation legally named CBC that markets, distributes and sells fantasy sports products, including fantasy baseball games accessible over the Internet. Ho hum, you might say; just another argument about money in which John Q. Public has no rooting interest.

Not so. This truly fascinating case, in which Mary Ann L. Medler, United States Magistrate Judge, ruled on August 8, was about more than “Who owns facts?” — specifically here, whether a fantasy baseball game could depict the names and statistics of active players without paying for the privilege. In background a Greek chorus might have intoned not only “Who owns sports?” but also “Who owns fame?”
Without doubt a transaction takes place between and among owner, club, and fan.

The club offers its credible intent to play hard and, often if not reliably, win.

The owner provides (with the aid of the general public, silent partner in all of sport) an arena for entertainment on site and via broadcast that augments spectators’ experience of the contest. He, in concert with other owners, also provides a league structure in which a championship may be contested and determined. Owner and players, in short, combine to make the game.

What does the fan contribute, besides his cash for a ticket, concessions, and parking when he goes to the game, or his inert fanny and eyeballs when advertisers bombard him at home? The fan may be said to own nothing yet give everything, for not only fortune but also fame are at one end of that two-way street in which the fan’s approbation and reward are at the other. The athlete may provide the accomplishment but the fan creates the fame; neither Organized Baseball nor the players seem fully cognizant of the vital role played by the proles.

The fan, the ordinary Joe, has no property or intellectual rights in the game of baseball. But as Judge Medler averred, he cannot be made to pay in one context for something that a purported vendor acknowledges is free to all in another. Are player statistics property, or are they public information? If I say 511, .406, or 73, do you know the players I am referencing (Cy Young, Ted Williams, Barry Bonds, respectively)? How about the uniform numbers 3, 7, 24, and 44 (most famously Babe Ruth, Mickey Mantle, Willie Mays, and Henry Aaron)?

In the legal proceeding neither MLBAM nor the MLBPA contended that numbers associated with players were anything but common facts in the public domain, beyond the proprietary interests of anyone who might look for the protection of copyright, trademark, or patent. If a company wished to depict the line below in a fantasy game it was OK with them:

G AB R H 2B 3B HR RBI SB CS BB SO BA OBP SLG
161 591 129 195 38 2 41 117 16 2 97 65 .330 .430 .609


If, however, an “unlicensed” (i.e., nonpaying) fantasy league like CBC combined that line with the name “Albert Pujols,” well then it was violating the player’s “right of publicity,” depriving him of the benefit of his good name and constricting his future earnings. Mind you, the MLBAM/MLBPA position was not opposed to such conjoined use by newspapers, television, or internet media, as these uses were clearly First Amendment protected instances of free speech and, besides, provided free publicity that tended to boost rather than crimp player and league revenues.

As the court summarized the opposing positions, “... the Players’ Association and Advanced Media clarified that they are not claiming that CBC cannot use players’ playing records or biographical data; that they are challenging CBC’s use of players’ names in conjunction with its fantasy baseball games; that they are claiming that the identities of players are represented by their names; that they are concerned with protecting the players’ names; and that they are claiming that CBC uses players’ names in its fantasy baseball games in violation of the players’ right of publicity.” In response to this view, “CBC stated that its position is that players’ names and playing records, as used in its fantasy baseball games, are preempted by copyright law; that CBC’s use of players’ names and playing records in its fantasy baseball games does not violate the players’ claimed right of publicity; and that even assuming, arguendo, that CBC’s use of players’ names and playing records violates the players’ right of publicity, the First Amendment controls.”

Unlike the right of privacy, which is a personal right, the right of publicity is generally regarded as a property right. Indeed, the right of publicity is a curious notion of startlingly recent birth. Conceptually it may be said to go back to King Kelly's 1887 contract with the Boston Red Stockings, to whom he had just been traded by Chicago White Stockings. The contract called for $2000 in salary, in line with the league-wide salary cap, but also provided $3000 for the use of his likeness for advertising and promotional purposes. In reality, this was just a ploy to evade the salary limitations and induce Kelly to abide by the trade. As J. Gordon Hylton, Professor of Law at Marquette University, wrote, “What Kelly authorized was technically neither a trademark nor a copyright matter, but a waiver of what we today call his ‘right of publicity.’ The early history of the right of publicity is extremely murky, but this particular agreement seems to imply ... that Kelly's club could not use his image for commercial purposes without his permission. It would be interesting to know if early baseball card manufactures paid players for the use of their images. Honus Wagner's ability to stop the printing of cigarette cards with his photos in the first decade of the 20th century also suggests that something like the right of publicity was recognized prior to 1910.”

However, the term was never used in a legal context until 1953. As Judge Medler wrote in her opinion, “A fairly recent concept, according to the Sixth Circuit in ETW Corporation v. Jireh Publishing, Inc., 332 F.3d 915, 929 (6th Cir. 2003), this right ‘was first recognized in Haelan Laboratories, Inc. v. Topps Chewing Gum. Inc., 202 F.2d 866 (2nd Cir. 1953), where the Second Circuit held that New York’s common law protected a baseball player’s right [Wes Westrum] in the publicity value of his photograph, and, in the process, coined the phrase ‘right of publicity’ as the name of this right.’ Subsequently, in Zacchini, 433 U.S. at 573, where a performer in a ‘human cannonball’ act sought to recover damages from a television broadcast of his entire performance, the Supreme Court recognized that the right of publicity protects the proprietary interest of an individual to ‘reap the reward of his endeavors.’”

The poor devil Zacchini won his suit because his act, his sole means of livelihood, was expropriated. “However,” Judge Medler wrote, “CBC’s use of Major League baseball players’ names and playing records in fantasy baseball games does not go to the heart of the players’ ability to earn a living as baseball players; the baseball players earn a living playing baseball and endorsing products; they do not earn a living by the publication of their playing records. See Zacchini, 433 U.S. at 576. Moreover, CBC’s use of Major League baseball players’ names and playing records [unlike the complete depiction of Zacchini’s human-cannonball shot] does not give CBC something free for which it would otherwise be required to pay; players’ records are readily available in the public domain.”

On the free-speech front, the judge continued, “CBC argues, in the event it has violated the players’ right of publicity, that speech is involved in its fantasy games; that this speech does not differ from raw statistics published in newspapers; that the speech involved in its fantasy games is expression which is protected under the First Amendment; and that the First Amendment trumps the right of publicity in the circumstances of this case. The Players’ Association and Advanced Media argue that CBC’s games do not involve speech or the expression of ideas; that what is at issue in this matter is not speech; and that, therefore, the First Amendment does not apply.”

Wrong. Again from the ruling: “Speech which does not use ‘a traditional medium of expression’ does not receive less protection than more traditional means of speech.... As such, the First Amendment has been applied to flag burning, nude dancing, and wearing a jacket with obscenities. Id. (citations omitted). Moreover, the fact that expression appears in a novel medium does not preclude its being subject to First Amendment protection.”

An earlier landmark case in this area of nontraditional free speech involved the World Wrestling Federation (in Titan Sports v. Comics World, 87-0178). In 1989 Judge Peter K. Leisure ruled in the Southern District of New York that a poster bound into various wrestling magazines was not an infringement of the wrestlers’ right of publicity, even though the poster was bound and stapled into the center and could not be viewed without removing it from the magazine, which itself of course was first-amendment protected. “The constitutional protection of the freedom of the press does not stop at 8" x 11," the judge ruled.

Returning to baseball, a sport in which the conclusion is not scripted, Judge Medler added: “A defendant’s making a profit does not preclude its receiving First Amendment protection.... The court finds, therefore, that CBC’s deriving a profit from its use of the names and playing records of Major League baseball players in its fantasy baseball games does not preclude such use from having First Amendment protection.”

Baseball has always been, in the words of long departed Cubs’ owner Phil Wrigley, “Too much of a sport to be a business and too much of a business to be a sport.” Amen.

--John Thorn

 
 
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